In a region beset by violent conflict, security threats and terrorism, understanding the national and transnational drivers of conflict and who are the parties, what are their agendas and roles, and what are the mechanisms needed for peace and security, is imperative to a wide range of stakeholders.
Pakistan’s geographic location, bordered by India and China with their massive populations, conflict-affected Afghanistan, Iran, and the Indian Ocean Region, and close to the Middle East and Central Asia, places it at the heart of a challenging and sensitive region. The invasion of Afghanistan and subsequent wars and terrorism has forced millions of refugees to flee into Pakistan and Iran placing enormous burdens on both countries for many years. Today, over a million Afghan refugees are registered in Pakistan with approximately the same number again, unregistered. Although the Government of Pakistan is now repatriating refugees, conditions in Afghanistan at present remain extremely challenging and there is resistance from refugees to returning. It remains a sensitive issue between the two countries. More recently, Europe is experiencing a large inflow of refugees from Afghanistan and other countries leading to new challenges. We provide analysis to define the impacts on peace and security.
Internal displacement of populations in Pakistan due to military operations has created large movements of people. In 2009, the Swat crisis 2.5 million people were internally displaced for at least six months. Military operations against the terrorist groups in FATA also displaced several million people. While most have now returned home, many are yet to follow. When families do return, they face substantial challenges in rebuilding their homes, and re-establishing their lives and livelihoods.
Terrorism in Pakistan increased post-2001 with more than 60,000 Pakistanis falling victim to attacks. While the number of attacks has decreased in recent times, the risks remain. Building stability and resilience is imperative to ensure sustainable peace.
Uncertainties in regional geo-politics increase the level of risk of future conflict both at a regional level and to Pakistan. The complexities of the interlinking risks are often not understood in full context. This creates uncertainty in investment and development, and for peace and security. We provide context, analysis and solutions for addressing the risks.
- Conflict research and analysis
- Conflict management support
- Regional Challenges
- Establishing security maintenance
- Transitional issues
- Post conflict rehabilitation and construction
- Complexities of management of displaced populations
- Challenges for refugees and internally displaced persons
- Role of women in peace and security
- Community resilience programs